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Le idi di Marzo

6 Ottobre 2016 , Scritto da Patrizia Poli Con tag #poli patrizia, #storia, #personaggi da conoscere

Le idi di Marzo

Caio Giulio Cesare (101/100 a.c. – 44 a.c.) fu uno dei più grandi generali. Ebbe il comando delle truppe che occupavano la Gallia Romana. In soli otto anni conquistò tutta la Francia e parte della Germania.

Quando tornò in trionfo a Roma era ormai tanto influente da essere considerato come un re, uno che piaceva al popolo perché dava pane e divertimenti a tutti. Il primo triumvirato, l'accordo privato per la spartizione del potere con Gneo Pompeo Magno e Marco Licinio Crasso, segnò l'inizio della sua ascesa. Dopo la morte di Crasso si scontrò con Pompeo. Nel 49 a.C., di ritorno dalla Gallia, guidò le sue legioni attraverso il Rubicone, pronunciando le celebri parole «Alea iacta est», e scatenò la guerra civile, con la quale divenne capo indiscusso di Roma, dopo aver sconfitto Pompeo a Farsalo (48 a.C.) Divenne così dittatore perpetuo.

Ma i patrizi non erano contenti, avevano ancora nel sangue l’idea repubblicana, e congiurarono per ucciderlo. Il 15 marzo fu pugnalato in Senato con 23 coltellate.

Ecco il famoso e meraviglioso discorso di Marco Antonio sul corpo di Cesare, scritto da William Shakespeare:

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus

Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:

If it were so, it was a grievous fault,

And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.

Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest–

For Brutus is an honourable man;

So are they all, all honourable men–

Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.

He was my friend, faithful and just to me:

But Brutus says he was ambitious;

And Brutus is an honourable man.

He hath brought many captives home to Rome

Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:

Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?

When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:

Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;

And Brutus is an honourable man.

You all did see that on the Lupercal

I thrice presented him a kingly crown,

Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;

And, sure, he is an honourable man.

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,

But here I am to speak what I do know.

You all did love him once, not without cause:

What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?

O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,

And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;

My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,

And I must pause till it come back to me. (Julius Caesar III)

E ancora :

If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.

You all do know this mantle: I remember

The first time ever Caesar put it on;

'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent,

That day he overcame the Nervii:

Look, in this place ran Cassius' dagger through:

See what a rent the envious Casca made:

Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd;

And as he pluck'd his cursed steel away,

Mark how the blood of Caesar follow'd it,

As rushing out of doors, to be resolved

If Brutus so unkindly knock'd, or no;

For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel:

Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him!

This was the most unkindest cut of all;

For when the noble Caesar saw him stab,

Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms,

Quite vanquish'd him: then burst his mighty heart;

And, in his mantle muffling up his face,

Even at the base of Pompey's statua,

Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.

O, what a fall was there, my countrymen!

Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,

Whilst bloody treason flourish'd over us.

O, now you weep; and, I perceive, you feel

The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.

Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold

Our Caesar's vesture wounded? Look you here,

Here is himself, marr'd, as you see, with traitors. (Julius Caesar III)

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